By Louis Nielsen
In the following I shall submit new viewpoints relating to the creation and development of stars. A logical conclusion hereof is an explosion theory for the formation of planets and their moons. These viewpoints are in agreement with, and based on the consequences which can be derived from my 'Holistic Quantum Cosmology with Decreasing Gravity' (see previous chapters). This theory gives an account of the quantum dynamical development of the Universe from which it was 'born' as one quant, with an extension equal to the cosmic elementary length. This state of birth I call the 'cosmic embryoton'. The quantum dynamical evolution of the Universe is 'guided' by a 'cosmic evolution quantum number', which took the value one, when the Universe was 'born'. Successively, as this cosmic evolution quantum number 'ticks' up through the natural numbers, the cosmic embryoton disintegrates in more and more energy/matter quanta, called unitons. The unitons are the (actually) smallest energy/matter quanta - the true atoms - of which all consists, and which are responsible for all effects in the Universe. The created unitons are spread out in an expanding and constantly growing Universe, where gravity is constantly decreasing in areas inside the Universe. The unitons also exist in what you call vacuum, and the whole Universe can be considered as consisting of an expanding 'cosmic uniton field', where matter, in the form of electrons, protons, neutrons, etc., are local concentrations of unitons - Bose-Einstein condensates. According to my theory the Universe develops from more concentrated states to less and less concentrated states. Ultimatively, everything in the Universe, even electrons, will dissolve and quantum disintegrate into more and 'lighter' unitons, which will be spread as evenly as possible. The possibility of a universal mortality quantum leap (death jump) also exists (even if this is not a direct consequence of my quantum cosmological equations).
In this case the Universe will develop towards a lower existence quantum state, from which the final cosmic quantum jump is to nothing.
With a dissolution and distribution as described above, neutron stars and possible 'black holes' can f.i. not be final stages of stars. A.o. these final states, taken from the established astronomy, has caused me to develop new viewpoints about the formation of stars, how they are built and how they develop. Within the last few years observers have thrown doubt on the established star models, of which some even find stars older than the Universe.
Our observations and analyses of the stars show that a number of types exist, great and small, heavy and light, bright and dim etc. A common feature is that most stars belong to a specific galaxy, which is a more or less limited and rotating energy/matter system in the Universe. A holistic theory about galaxies, stars, planets and their moons must a.o. be able to reply to the question: why are not all galaxies and stars alike?
Short qualitative description of the current understanding of the formation and development of stars and planets.
According to traditional star theories, a star - like f.i. our Sun - is created from a giant, in the beginning slowly rotating, 'cloud' of particles/dust, mainly consisting of hydrogen and helium. As the 'cloud' contracts due to gravity, there will at the central area be formed a star, and the temperature will, due to the pressure, raise to several million degrees. During condensation of the 'cloud' it can be divided in more ring formed systems of matter, from which planets and moons can be developed by gravitational forces.
In the inner of the formed stars it is presumed that fusion processes occur, where lighter atomic nuclei melts together, forming heavier and heavier elements, with atomic numbers up to and including iron, releasing simultaneously kinetic energy and radiation energy. Elements heavier than iron in f.i. the Sun and the planets are not supposed to be created by nuclear processes in the Sun, but to be remnants from an earlier supernova in the vicinity. (This is a typical ad hoc assumption, which by itself may give doubt about the used star models.)
As long as the inner nuclear reactions go on, an outward pressure can resist the inward directed gravitational forces, and the star can exist in a relatively stable state. However, gradually as the nuclear processes slow down due to lack of material, the gravity will get the upper hand, and at a certain time the star will collapse and cause an explosion. Depending on the mass of the original star, a given star will - according to accepted theories - end as a white dwarf, a neutron star, also called a pulsar, or perhaps a so called 'black hole'. Any further theories for these final states do not exist.
Pulsars, - fast moving neutron 'stars'
When studying radio emissions from quasars Jocelyn Bell in 1967 discovered some very regular radio pulses, which were emitted from a definite place in the constellation Vulpecula. (Jocelyn Bell then studied at Cambridge University under Anthony Hewish, who in 1974 received the Nobel Price for the discovery, without Jocelyn Bell). The objects transmitting the very regular radio pulses were during the next following years identified as being fast rotating neutron balls with diameters of the order of 10 km - 20 km. The first spotted object had a pulsation period of about 1,3 seconds and was given the name CP 1919. After the discovery several questions were posed, a.o.:
After the discovery of the neutron by the English physicist James Chadwick (1891-1974) in 1932, Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974) and Walter Baade (1893-1960) proposed in an article in 1934, '...with every possible reservation...', that as a result of a supernova explosion there could be created a supertight object, similar to a giant atomic nucleus, which mainly consisted of neutrons. The name supernova was introduced in 1931 by Zwicky during a lecture on novae at Caltech. This name should cover a special type star explosions, which astronomers had observed during decades, and which shone clearer and longer then novae. The theoretical possibility for the existence of compact objects, consisting of mainly neutrons was calculated by Georg Gamow (1904-1968) in 1937 and Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967) in 1939. The question which physical processes are able to emit such regular radio signals was, and is still, important to have replied.
There are more possibilities, a.o. these:
Most of the observation data are considered to be explained best by the third possibility, viz. by a fast own rotation. Around the rotating neutron object there is a very strong magnetic field. In this electrically charged particles can accelerate, which will cause radio emission. If the radio emission is transmitted along a magnetic axis, different from the rotation axis, this can explain the observed regular pulses.
The question how these neutron balls are created, is of cosmological interest. I doubt that they can be formed at a supernova explosion. On the contrary I am of the opinion that these fast rotating macro-neutron balls are already present in the central parts of all normal stars, such as our Sun. This assumption is basis for my star model, which is treated in a following section. Newer research shows that neutron stars are not passive objects, but on the contrary active systems with a complicated structure, which is not yet known in details. Thus much indicates that they are not ultimative final stages, but can very well be primary and intermediate stages in the creation of new stars, starting to shine.
Pulsars as primary and intermediate stages in the formation of new stars. Super nuclei.
Every correct theory must, of course, be in agreement with reality, viz. with the observations and experiments we make. We observe that there are many different types of stars, some great and bright, other small and dim. Some are supposed to have a high age, other a lower age, measured from the time when the star enters a longer, stable and energy/element producing stage. How can all these different types of stars be explained? In the following I shall submit a new theory for the creation, the building and the processings of stars. Fundamentally, my theory is quite opposite the accepted condensation theories. The theory is based on the existence of super nuclei, viz. nuclei with high and extremely high nucleonic numbers.
We know the existence of atoms of natural elements up to and inclusive atomic number 92, viz. Uranium. This is, however, unstable and decays emitting alpha particles. In the laboratory there has been created elements with atomic numbers up to 114, which is very unstable with a short lifetime. It is very likely that super nuclei exist, f.i. in the core of stars and under certain conditions. Such super nuclei will under given conditions decay to all known elements, while lighter types of nuclei and highly energetic gamma quanta are emitted, analog to the emission of alpha and beta particles and gamme quanta from known radio active nuclei.
Let our starting point be the early Universe, where gravity was much higher than in our epoch, decreasing rapidly. At a certain early epoch of the quantum development of the Universe, an extremely high amount of very heavy and fast rotating neutron balls were created, of which some groups belong to coming galactic systems. From these rotating neutron balls I assume that the first stars develop. As will be evident from the next section, a layered structure will develop, and this structure will contain energy releasing and element creating processes. As long as balance exists between the outward directed particle and radiation forces and the inward directed gravitational forces, the system will be stable. This stable system is identical to an energy emitting normal star. If the energy releasing processes cause a higher outward directed pressure than the inward directed gravitational forces, the outer layers will explode, with the result that the 'naked' neutron ball will be exposed. If the energy releasing outward directed forces get too small to withstand gravity, there will at first be a gravitational matter collapse, which, however, will be followed by an explosion. Such explosion phenomena are observed as novae, supernovae and hypernovae. The 'exposed' neutron balls are identical to the known pulsars, which are fast rotating neutron systems, also called neutron stars.
If the fast rotating neutron stars have an extremely strong magnetic field, they are called magnetars.
In the established astronomy a neutron star is assumed to be the final stage of a heavy star. This is not the case in my evolution theory, as it must be assumed that slowly during million of years there may be re-created a new 'neutron atmosphere', in which energy producing and element creating processes can again take place. A new, but somewhat different star has been born! After another long - millions or billions of years - stable period, again an explosion will occur, 'exposing' a (now smaller) neutron ball. This will then again be 'fetus' for a new star, etc. A number of such 'rebirths' will produce different stars, which can explain that different types of stars exist.
As you will understand, pulsars are - according to my theory - not final stages of stars, but, on the contrary, primary and intermediate stages of new stars.
New fission-fusion model for stars with a central core of neutrons.
In the following I shall describe a new model of the Sun and other stars. Let us, as an example, consider the construction of the Sun and the processes going on inside.
Generally speaking, the Sun has a layered structure and function. The central part consists of a relatively small rotating neutron ball, which almost only consists of neutrons. This rotating neutron ball causes the primary magnetic field of the Sun. Around the neutron ball, a zone of super nuclei, with different, very high, nucleonic numbers, exist. These nuclei are 'evaporated' from the surface of the neutron ball, aided by the strong magnetic field and maybe by the quantum mechanical tunnel effect. In more free ambience these super nuclei are unstable, and they will, by different reaction types, disintegrate to nuclei with lower nucleonic numbers. The stability of the super nuclei also depends on the actual value of the gravitational 'constant', and how fast this value decreases. In earlier epochs of the Universe, gravity was much higher. When the Universe was 'born', Newton's gravitational 'constant' was 1042 times higher than in our epoch, and in the early Universe it decreased extremely rapidly.
In the zone of super nuclei the super nuclei decay by spontaneous and induced fission, and similarly they decay by emitting alpha, beta, gamma and delta particles. By delta particles all other than alpha, beta or gamma emissions are denoted. As an example there may be emission of nuclei of carbon, oxygen, silicium, sulphur and other lighter elements. The energy released in the disintegration processes are kinetic energy and radiation energy. The pressures from particles and radiation causes an 'inflation' of the system of matter. An active star is under formation! The above processes are energy producing and simultaneously, all heavier elements, with atomic numbers down to iron, with the most stable nuclei we know, are produced. The neutrons and alpha particles released, and lighter elements created by the disintegration of the super nuclei and their following decay, are blown outwards in the Sun, by the pressure from radiation and particles. The neutrons are converted to protons, electrons and anti-neutrinoes, from which hydrogen atoms can be created. Alpha particles form helium atoms. In the zone of super nuclei, the abundance of iron gets higher as the disintegration of super nuclei advances. Hydrogen, helium and some of the lighter and heavier elements will be 'placed' in two zones, around and outside the zone of super nuclei. In the inner, the hydrogen-helium zone, where temperature and pressure are high, fusion is taking place, under release of energy and creation of lighter elements. The outer hydrogen-helium zone is identical to the outer parts of the Sun and consists, as spectral analyses show, of hydrogen, helium and lighter elements, however mixed with some heavier elements.
Regarding the possible existence of super nuclei, the condensation of a many particle system was already theoretically foreseen by Einstein and Bose over 70 years ago, and in 1995 it was possible to 'create' such condensate.
The structure of a star is divided into zones, where different processes are taking place, and it can be resumed as follows:
Innermost: Rotating neutron ball:
A relatively fast rotating neutron ball, being the cause of the star's primary magnetic field.
It is also causing the super nuclei, being blown out from the surface.
Next follows: Super nuclei zone - disintegration zone:
A zone consisting of super nuclei disintegrating and decaying under release of energy and simultaneous creation of heavier elements, down to iron. From the super nuclei also lighter elements can be emitted.
Then follows: The iron zone:
A zone with relatively high abundance of iron and with 'balance' between fission and fusion processes.
Next follows: H-He zone 1 - fusion zone:
A zone consisting primarily of hydrogen and helium, with fusion processes releasing energy and creating lighter elements.
And outermost we have: H-He zone 2 - fusion free zone:
A zone consisting of hydrogen, helium and lighter elements, mixed with heavier elements.
The outer zone we know quite well through our studies of spectra. However, informations from the other zones are currently difficult to analyse. Studies of neutrino flux, magnetic fields and helio seismology may eventually confirm or reject the present model. The theory may perhaps also be confirmed as follows: The central rotating neutron ball with a strong magnetic field will like pulsars emit radio waves in a cone along the magnetic axis. This radio emission will, however, be distorted on its way out through the Sun's secondary magnetic field, which is created by the motion of charged particles.
If the proposed theory for energy production and element creation in the Sun shall be confirmed, it will be necessary to measure the neutrino flux leaving the Sun. This has been done, but with the result that only about one third of the amount expected with a 'pure' fusion model have been found. This is considered a great 'enigma', so perhaps the solution is the above described model. As the total specifications for the disintegration of the super nuclei are not known it is not yet possible to calculate the emitted neutrino flux.
The theory here proposed is better in agreement with the entropy law, which 'dictates' that a system shall seek a state with wider distribution of energy/matter. Fusion processes resulting in more structured systems actually are controversial to the entropy law. Locally and temporarily, however, the entropy can be lowered and kept constant, even if it, totally seen, must raise. It must be assumed that nature always 'chooses' the simplest and most direct processes.
'Guided and dictated' by the entropy law, the whole Universe finally ends as a 'soup' of passive quanta, albeit if it does not 'jump' to nothingness.
New theory concerning the formation of planets and their moons.
In the following is given a description of the formation of the planets of our solar system and their moons. The primary mechanisms of formation are assumed to be explosion processes, quite contrary to the assumptions of the current theories, which teaches that the solar system and the planets are formed by gravitational contraction.
The matter, of which planets and moons consist, is explosionally thrown out from a fast rotating and already active pre-Sun, where creation of elements and release of energy are well under way.
The prefix 'pre' indicates that the Sun or other systems have not reached stable stages.
The pre-planetaric matter has been 'rotationally' slinged out by a two stage explosion mechanism
The outer planets, with lowest density and consisting of the lightest elements, are created first and has received a great total angular momentum, consisting of orbit angular momentum and own rotation angular momentum. The inner planets, with greatest density and consisting of heavier elements, are created latter and has been assigned a smaller total angular momentum. The outer planets, Neptun, Uranus and Jupiter are thus the oldest, the inner, Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercur are younger.
Let us first consider the formation of the outer planets. At a certain time an instability has occurred in the active pre-Sun, with the result that an explosion process has started. The outer layer of the pre-Sun, with high abundance of hydrogen and helium, has thereby been slinged out in space. Due to the fast rotation of the pre-Sun, this pre-planetaric matter has been chiefly distributed as a 'matter disk' in the Sun's equatorial plan, and, due to the gravitational pull of the pre-Sun, is attracted towards this. This has caused the 'matter disk' to split up in more rings, with greatest amount of matter in the rings near the pre-Sun. During time these rings have condensed to the known outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. (Pluto may be a body gone astray in the outer solar system). Many different analyses have confirmed that the outer planets consist of the lightest elements.
After the solar explosion, the outward directed pressure from radiation and particles fell. This caused a gravitational contraction of the outer layers of matter, where the abundance of heavier elements, especially iron, had been considerably increased. At a later, second explosion, matter rich in heavier elements, especially iron, was slinged out. From this matter, the inner planets, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars and the asteroids have been formed. But also moons and matter rings around the outer planets consist of such matter, which has been captured by the outer planets at the second sling-out. Hereby is explained why the moons of the outer planets consist of 'earthlike' matter, and not necessarily of the same matter of which the mother planet consists.
Matter rotating between the Sun and Jupiter was exposed to two gravitational pulls, one attracting it towards the Sun and another attracting it towards Jupiter. This two stage process had two effects: 1) That the matter disk was stretched so that the areas closest to the Sun and closest to Jupiter were 'flat', while the area in the middle was 'thicker'. 2) That it was divided in a number of rotating matter rings, five, six or perhaps more. The smallest planets, Mercury and Venus, were formed nearest to the Sun, and they contain the heaviest elements, especially iron. That Mercury is practically an iron ball circling the Sun is thus fully understandable. The Earth was formed from the 'thickest' ring. From the rings of matter nearest Jupiter are Mars and the asteroids formed. The matter ring nearest to Jupiter has not been able to form a planet, due to the high gravity of Jupiter. Something similar can be said about a possible ring of matter between the Sun and Mercury. Possibly a great number of greater and smaller lumps of matter exist in orbits inside the orbit of Mercury. Due to the strong light from the Sun they are extremely difficult to observe. The existence of such lumps of matter can be used to explain the anomaly of the Mercury perihelium rotation, viz. the discrepancy between the observed rotation of the Mercury perihelium and the rotation calculated by means of Newton's gravitational mechanics. The observed difference is about 43 arc seconds per 100 years. If a reasonably great and unknown mass exists inside Mercury's orbit, the calculation of the perihelium rotation by means of Einstein's gravitational theory will give a wrong value, which means that the theory falls!
The discovery of a rotating ring of matter around a massive star.
The preceding theoretical discussions concerning formation of planets around an already active pre-star has been supported by new observations performed with radio telescopes in New Mexico and California. These discoveries were announced by a press release from National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, New Mexico, USA, the 8. january 1999.(See: http://www.nrao.edu) It concerns a giant rotating matter disk around a massive central star. The observed system is denoted G192.16-3.82 and is situated within the constellation Orion.
The central star, which is supposed to be under development, is about six to ten times more massive than the Sun, and the rotating disk is supposed to contain around twenty times more mass than the Sun. The extension of the matter disk is more than 500 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun. It has been observed that a great amount of matter is slinged out from the central area. This phenomena has surprised astronomers, as it is in contradiction to established theories about stars and planets. These theories tell that the primary processes are gravitational concentration of great 'clouds of particles'. The discoveries can, however, be expected according to my explosion theory, which tells that the explosion energy is caused by disintegration of super nuclei, viz. nuclei with very high nucleonic numbers.
A.o. the Hubble Space Telescope has the latter years discovered more stars, circled by rotating giant matter rings. These may develop into planets. Furthermore many objects have been observed from which are spewed matter explosively with enormous velocities, the so called 'jets'.
More and more observations show that many of the objects of matter in the Universe have been created as a result of cosmic explosions and fewer by condensation of matter.
© Louis Nielsen, January 1999