New Cosmological Theory

Unification of the smallest with the greatest

Translation of an article in KONTAKT, the 1998 yearbook for the college Herlufsholm

By Louis Nielsen.

In the following I shall give a short summary of a holistic cosmological theory, which I have developed during the last 25 years. The basic idea for the theory I got in the late 1960's and the beginning of the 1970's, when I thoroughly studied the basical physics and the methods used for a deductive construction of the physical conceptions and the objective definitions of them. My theories are based on some equations discovered by me, and which give a context between microcosmos and macrocosmos. These discoveries - which give a possibility for a quantum theory about the Universe - show a context between cosmological quantities, such as the total matter/energy mass of the Universe, its actual extension, the velocity of light and the gravitational 'constant', and atomic physical quantities, such as Planck's constant, the mass of an electron, its geometrical extension and its electrical charge.

During the years I have shown that my quantum cosmological theory has many interesting consequences, a.o. that the gravitation in the Universe is decreasing, and that 'everywhere' in the Universe some smallest energy/matter quanta exist. These smallest energy/matter quanta - the true atoms of the Universe - of which everything consists and which are causing all effects, I have given the name unitons. Everything in existence and all effects are caused by the presence of unitons, by their geometrical distribution and their relative motions!

The existence of unitons can a.o. give a physical/mechanical explanation of the gravitational forces, and with my uniton-mechanical theory I can give a physical/mechanical explanation of Einstein's famous formula: E = mc2, as I can show that mc2, where m is the mass of a definite amount of matter and c is the velocity of light, is an expression of the total kinetic energy (motional energy) of the unitons of which the amount of matter exists. That a 'system of matter', notwithstanding its chemical appearance, contains a total inner energy, defined by its total mass and thereby by the number of unitons it consists of, is hereby quite understandable.

A consequence of my theory for the Universe is a new theory, explaining the formation of stars and how the elements are created inside stars with simultaneous release of energy. The creation of elements and the release of energy inside stars is based on the existence of super nuclei, which are nuclei with extremely high nucleonic numbers. These super nuclei are supposed to be found in the inner of the stars, and by disintegration (division and emission of smaller clusters of nuclei) all the known elements are gradually created under simultaneous release of energy.

A new explosion theory for the development of our planet system is a logical consequence of my star theory. My theory for planet forming is completely different from the classical, which presumes that the Sun and the planets are formed by gravitational contraction and condensation of an originally extremely great rotating dust and gas cloud, which all along contained all the elements of which the planets now consist. In my theory, the matter of which the planets and their moons are made of, is explosionally slinged out from an already existing 'pre-sun'.

As a substitute for Einstein's gravitional theory and an extension of Newton's gravitational law, I have shown, that around gravitating masses in relative motion, there exist two gravitational fields, and that these gravitational fields obey equations, mathematically equal to the socalled Maxwell equations, to which also electromagnetical fields obey. Besides the usual Newton gravitational field, there is a 'rotational field' - a gravitomagnetic field - around gravitating masses in relative motion. This 'rotational field', corresponding to the magnetic field around an electrically charged particle in motion, is in our epoch extremely weak and therefore difficult to measure with the measuring technique at our disposal. The 'rotational field' was in earlier epochs stronger and can maybe give a physical explanation of the rotation of galaxies.

A treatise containing my theories, with the main title 'Holistic Quantum Cosmology with Decreasing Gravity' has by now been published on the Internet for more than two years. Interested persons can study the theories at the URL: Comments are very welcome.

The classical physical theories are not consistent!

The physics of the present century has been characterized by three great theories, namely: 1) the quantum theory, 2) the special theory of relativity and 3) the general theory of relativity. The quantum theory was established in the year 1900, when the German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) discovered that the electromagnetic emission from matter is not emitted continuously and in arbitrarily small energy portions, but on the contrary in discrete and definite energy portions - energy quanta - also called photons. In the quantitative description of these energy quanta Planck introduced a characteristic physical quantity, which is known under the name 'Planck's constant', and which is denoted by the letter h. This constant appears in the quantum physical description of micro physical processes, viz. phenomena taking place in microcosmos. In the description of daily and macroscopic phenomena, the very small value of Planck's constant - in SI-units - means that the quantum aspects are not clearly visible, although these phenomena fundamentally may be a result of quantum physical processes. The quantum physical description was further developed and applied by a.o. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), who in 1905 gave an 'explanation' of the socalled photoelectric effect, and Niels Bohr (1885-1962), who in 1913 introduced the quantum conception when trying to 'explain' the discontinuity of light emissions from atoms.

The Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) introduced in 1926 a wave equation, continuous in space and time, which, when used on atomic systems, gives solutions which are quantized, viz. where some physical quantities can only take certain - discretely distributed - values. Schrödinger's equation, which does not comprise cosmological physical quantities - such as the mass of the Universe or its extension - is today still the base for quantum physics. Schrödinger himself - being a nature/philosophical thinker - did not consider his equation to reflect 'the true face' of nature, but more as a provisional solution, which, with lack of deeper understanding, might help us to 'understand' some of the natural processes.

The other great theories of the century are Einstein's socalled 'special theory of relativity' from 1905, and the 'general theory of relativity' from 1915, the latter being also a suggestion for a mathematical geometrical model of gravitation. In short Einstein's gravitational theory can be expressed as follows: "The distribution of matter and energy defines space-time geometry and space-time geometry defines how matter shall move." Both theories are in their mathematical-physical construction continuous, viz. they are not based on quantum physics. They assume a.o. that f.i. space and time are continuous quantities, which can be divided infinitely, space down to mathematical points without extension! None of Einstein's equations contain explicit micro physical quantities, like f.i. Planck's constant, which is a physical quantity which shall appear in all theories, describing and explaining that we live in a, fundamentally seen, 'quantized universe'! Einstein's general theory of relativity can not in any understandable way explain anything taking place in microcosmos, and the theory breaks down in an 'infinity problem' if you try to use it on the earliest times of the Universe. During the whole century physicists have tried to get a context between the quantum theories and Einstein's general theory of relativity. This has failed, which indicates that Einstein's general theory of relativity from 1915 is not a 'true' theory, but only a possible mathematical model, which can 'explain' certain macroscopic and continuous natural phenomena. We can conclude that the physical theories of our century are not consistent!

Quantization of space, time and matter

As we can define all physical quantities using the fundamental physical quantities: 1) distance, 2) time interval and 3) mass, it seems logical and consequent that these three basical physical quantities should be basically quantized, as I would express it. These fundamental physical quantities exist in minimum values. When Niels Bohr in 1913 introduced the quantum conception, he started by quantizing a derived physical quantity, the socalled angular momentum of an electron, orbiting a center, f.i. around a proton in a hydrogen atom. This angular momentum is defined as the product of the electron's mass, its velocity and its distance from the orbit center. Niels Bohr thus did not assume that the basic physical quantities are quantized, but that this could be the case for quantities at a higher level. Quantization of the angular momentum implies mathematically/physically that also a quantity like the energy of a bound electron must be quantized, viz. that its energy can only take some quite definite values.

In established physics - which shall describe and 'explain' all phenomena in the Universe - it is assumed that distances and time intervals can be split up in indefinitely small quantities, viz. that these quantities are continuous.

My quantum cosmological theory is based on the existence of a physically smallest distance - elementary length - with a value of r0 = 1.4 · 10-102 m (which means the comma shall be moved 102 places left!), a physically smallest time interval - elementary time - with the value of t0 = 4.7 · 10-111 s and a variable actually smallest physical mass - elementary mass - with a present value of mu = 2.2 · 10-68 kg. (For comparison the mass of an electron is 9.1 · 10-31 kg). This smallest mass represents the smallest energy/matter portion in the actual Universe, and as earlier mentioned, I call it a uniton.

Elementary length is equal to Planck's constant divided by the product of the total mass of the Universe and the velocity of light. Elementary time is given by the quotient between elementary length and the velocity of light. Elementary length and elementary time can be understood as 'the distance atom' and 'the time atom', respectively.

Definite physical lengths, time intervals and masses are equal to the respective elementary quantities multiplied by a natural number.

Unifying micro- and macrocosmos. Holism.

My discovery of a context between the physical elementary length, the actual extension of the Universe and the third power of the quotient between the electrostatic and the gravitostatic forces between two electrons, denoted by N3, has the consequence - if we are living in an expanding universe! - that the gravitational forces in the Universe are decreasing. The discovered equation (formula (1)) contains all the basic physical quantities, both from microcosmos and macrocosmos, as we know them from physics, such as the electrical charge of the electron, its mass, Newton's gravitational 'constant' (which in my theory is not constant), Planck's constant, the velocity of light and, not least, the total matter/energy mass of the Universe!! The latter I consider to be the most fundamental quantity in the Universe. No previous theory has to my knowledge the total mass of the Universe as a fundamental quantity. I postulate that the most fundamental physical quantities are: elementary length, elementary time and the total matter/energy mass of the Universe. Formula (1), which I call 'the quantum cosmological basic equation', depicts that the part and the totality interchange on a higher level - nature is holistic.

Formula (1)

In this formula, R is the actual extension of the Universe, kc is Coloumb's constant, e is the charge of the electron, me its mass and G is Newton's gravitational 'constant', which in my theory varies with the expansive evolution of the Universe. h is Planck's constant, c0 the velocity of light and M0 the total matter/energy mass of the Universe. Elementary length is equal to the quotient between h and the product of M0 and c0. N gives the actual quotient between the electrostatic and the gravitatostatic forces between two electrons.

N3 plays the role as a cosmic evolution quantum number, that is a discrete parameter, 'ticking' up through the natural numbers. When the Universe was 'born', it had the value 1!

The uniton-dynamical quantum universe. Gravity and electricity

When the Universe was 'born' within the first cosmic quantum time interval about 11 billion years ago, it had an extension equal to elementary length and it consisted solely of one quantum, called the cosmic embryoton (the foster particle of the Universe). The evolution is 'controlled' by a cosmic evolution quantum number, N3, 'ticking' up through the natural numbers. N is the actual quotient between the magnitude of the electrostatic and the gravitostatic forces between two electrons. In our epoch N = 4.17 · 1042. The Universe was 'born' when N had the magnitude 1.

Gradually as the cosmic evolution quantum number got higher and higher values, the originally cosmic embryoton was divided in a number of elementary quanta - unitons - equal to the value of the cosmic evolution quantum number. This ever increasing number of unitons, each with smaller and smaller masses, are spread out in a constantly growing Universe. The Universe develops from - generally speaking - simpler and more concentrated states, to more complex and less concentrated states. A consequence of the growing value of N is a constantly decreasing gravity in the Universe. Just after the 'birth' of the Universe, the gravitational forces were N times greater than in our epoch.

The present extension of the Universe is N3 = 7.2 · 10127 times elementary length, viz. 1026 meter. The number 7.2 · 10127 is also equal to the number of unitons in the present Universe, which gives a total mass of the Universe of 1.6 · 1060 kg. As the extremely high number of unitons are not all 'bound' in what we call matter, most unitons must be found in what we call vacuum. Thus the theory predicts the existence of a universal 'quantum medium', consisting of unitons, and which I shall call the cosmic uniton field. The unitons in this field move in all directions and with extremely high velocities. As a logical consequence of my cosmological theory I have established a uniton-dynamical and cosmologically dependent model of the electron. In this model electrons - of which all matter consist - are considered as active uniton-dynamical subsystems, in almost dynamical equilibrium in the cosmic uniton field.

The context between gravitational forces and electrical forces is a consequence of another of my discoveries (Formula (2)), which gives a context between microcosmos and macrocosmos, namely that the quotient between the mass density de (or uniton density) of an electron and the average mass density, dcos, (or uniton density) of the Universe, is equal to the number N. As consequences of the discovered equational contexts I have derived equations, allowing us to calculate the total mass of the Universe, its actual extension and age, by means of locally measured atomic physical quantities!

Both the gravitational forces and the electrical forces between two electrons can be explained as a result of mechanical uniton pushing forces. What is the physical reason for the gravitational forces? Why does an apple fall to the ground? According to my uniton-mechanical theory, the explanation is: There is a greater total uniton pushing force - originating from the cosmic uniton field - on the side of the apple pointing away from the surface of the Earth than on the side pointing towards the Earth. This is due to the fact that the uniton density is smaller between the Earth and the apple than outside, because the two bodies 'shade' for the cosmic unitons! The result is that the two bodies, the Earth and the apple, are pushed together! The cause for gravitational forces can thus be understood by a simple, physical mechanism. Matter does not have a mystical attracting quality! And Einstein's abstract space-time geometrical model for gravity is not compatible with a nature, which functions on 'the principle of simplicity'. The electrical forces are of the same basical nature as the gravitational forces, also being due to uniton pushing forces, only with a strength N times greater.

My uniton-mechanical theory explains why bodies with different masses - in vacuum - fall with the same acceleration, f.i. near to the Earth, an experimental recognition, demonstrated by Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) by his famous fall experiments, but which has been difficult to explain theoretically.

Formula (2)

In formula (2) re is the geometrical extension of an electron. The other quantities have been explained earlier.

The absolute cosmological measuring units

The quantum physical elementary quantities - elementary length, elementary time and elementary mass, the actual mass of a uniton - represent an absolute and cosmological system of units, independent of specific local systems and living systems. I have introduced the following notations for the natural cosmological measuring units:

1) Elementary length, defining the physical distance unit: 1 spaton

2) Elementary time, defining the physical time unit: 1 tempon

3) Elementary mass, defining the physical mass unit: 1 masson

Using these universal measuring units we get the following for the total mass of the Universe, its extension and its age:

Total mass of the Universe: 7.2 · 10127 massons

Actual extension: 7.2 · 10127 spatons

Present age of the Universe: 7.2 · 10127 tempons

Number of unitons presently: 7.2 · 10127

In the cosmological measuring units, the total mass of the Universe, its extension and its age are expressed by the same number, which is equal to N3, the cosmic evolution quantum number!

When the Universe was 'born', within the first cosmic quantum time interval, all the above quantities were equal to 1!

Measured in the units introduced by men: meter, second and kilogram, we have:

Present mass of the Universe: 1.6 · 1060 kg

Present extension of the Universe: 1026 meter

Present age of the Universe: 3.3 · 1017 sec

Number of unitons in the present Universe: 7.2 · 10127

We see that the cosmological measuring units are much more fundamental and systematic!

Conditio embryonis omnia determinat

Louis Nielsen, June, 1998.